St Barbara was incorporated and listed in 1969 as Endeavour Oil. Activities were initially focused on mineral exploration and production from assets located in Western Australia. In the early 2000s the operations were focused on gold production at Meekatharra in Western Australia.
Following a change in management in July 2004, the strategy was to be an Australian based gold producer and explorer. In March 2005, the Company acquired the Southern Cross, Leonora and South Laverton gold assets from Sons of Gwalia Limited (Administrators Appointed). In October 2005 the Company sold its South Laverton and Meekatharra assets and focused on its Southern Cross and Leonora operations.
St Barbara's high grade Gwalia gold mine at Leonora was commissioned in October 2008. In June 2011 the new King of the Hills mine was commissioned to provide additional feed to the Gwalia mill.
In September 2012, St Barbara acquired Allied Gold Mining Plc and its gold operations at Simberi in Papua New Guinea and Gold Ridge in the Solomon Islands.
St Barbara's Southern Cross Operation ceased operations during the December 2012 quarter and in April 2013 was sold to Hanking Gold Mining Pty Ltd, a subsidiary of China Hanking Holdings Limited.
Operations at Gold Ridge in the Solomon Islands were suspended in April 2014 due to torrential rainfall and ensuing flooding. Force majeure notices were issued under certain mining and supply agreements once it became apparent that production could not be resumed due to factors outside of the control of the local subsidiary which owned the mine, Gold Ridge Mining Limited. The Gold Ridge Project was sold to a Solomon Islands company associated with local landowners in May 2015.
St Barbara's King of the Hills mine ceased mining in April 2015 and in October 2015 was sold to Saracen Metals Pty Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Saracen Mineral Holdings Ltd.